Regular visitors to this blog will know that Pearls is dedicated to the ‘Ulama of Deoband. However, in this particular entry I have chosen to publish an excerpt from the writings of the great Syrian scholar of Halab, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah (ra). I found this excerpt extremely beneficial to an extent that in this internet-obsessed age, where everyone considers himself a scholar, I felt an urge to publish it on the blog. Although it concerns the ‘Ulama in particular, it is applicable to all.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah (ra) is not from among the ‘Ulama of Deoband. However, he had close relationships with many senior Deobandi ‘Ulama, who thought extremely high of him and had the greatest respect and love for him. He was also responsible for popularising the works of many Indo-Pak ‘Ulama in the Arab world, particularly those of ‘Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (ra) and ‘Allamah ‘Abd al-Hayy Lucknowi (ra).

A friend of mine, an ‘Alim once told me that Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah (ra) was Jan-e-Fida to our Akabir (in other words, someone who was absolutely devoted to them). It is with this in mind that I present the following excerpt from the book, “The Sunnah Way Of The Sufis”, which is an English translation of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah’s (ra) commentary on Imam al-Muhasibi’s (ra) Risalah al-Mustarshidin.

An ‘Alim’s Saying  “I Do Not Know” Raises His Rank

Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghuddah (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) writes:

Abdullah ibn ‘Umar says: “Knowledge is of three types; the book that is forever speaking (Qur’an), an established sunnah, and ‘I do not know’.”[1] 

In his explanation to this statement, al-Manawi (rahmatullahi alayh) says: “It is learnt from this hadith that it is a duty of an ‘Alim that if he does not know the answer to a question, he should say ‘I do not know’, or, ‘I am not certain’, or, ‘I have no knowledge thereof’, or, ‘Allah knows best’. If a person is asked a question and he replies, ‘I do not know’, this does not lower his rank, as some ignorant people assume. This is because the ignorance of a qualified ‘Alim with regard to certain matters does not harm him. Rather, his saying, ‘I do not know’, raises his rank because it is proof of his great status, the strength of his din, the fear of his Sustainer, the purity of his heart, the perfection of his recognition [of Allah] and the goodness of his intention.

”It is a person whose religiosity is weak and whose recognition [of Allah] is little who will scorn such a statement. This is because he fears a drop in his status in the eyes of those who are present but does not fear a drop in his status in the sight of the Sustainer of the worlds. This is an act of ignorance and weakness in din.”[2]

The statement, “I do not know” and “I have no knowledge” have thus been recorded with regards to the four Imams, the four rightly guided caliphs, in fact, even from Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and Jibra’il (‘alayhi as-salam).

Imam Abu ‘l-Hasan al-Mawardi (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) says: “Since there is no way whatsoever of encompassing all knowledge, there is no shame in not knowing some of it. Since there is no shame in not knowing some of it, you should not feel shy to say: ‘I do not know’, with regard to what you do not know.”[3] 

Saying “I Do Not Know” Is Half Of Knowledge

Imam al-Ghazzali (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) says: “The person who remains silent when he does not know—and he does this solely for Allah—is no lesser in reward than the person who speaks. This is because admitting ignorance is more difficult on the soul.”

Abu Talib Talib Makki (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) says: “This is because the beauty of a person remaining silent for the sake of Allah out of piety is like the beauty of a person who speaks of knowledge for the sake of Allah willingly.”[4] 

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) narrates from someone of knowledge who said: “Learn to say, ‘I do not know’, and do not learn to say: ‘I know’. This is because if you say: ‘I do not know’, they will teach you till you know. But if you say, ‘I know’, they will continue questioning you till you have no answer.”[5] 

Abu Khaythamah al-Nasa’i (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) narrates on the authority of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “It is part of knowledge for a person who does not know, to say Allah knows best.”[6] 

Ibrahim al-Nakha’i (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) asked a question to ‘Amir ash-Sha’bi (rahmatullahi ‘alayh), who was a great Imam and a great scholar from among the Tabi’in (followers). So the latter replied: ‘I do not know.’ On hearing this, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i (rahmatullahi ‘alayh) said: “I take an oath by Allah that this is a true ‘Alim—he was asked about something which he did not know and he said: ‘I do not know’.”

Source: The Sunnah Way Of The Sufis, Zam Zam Publishers, Pages 80-82 

[1] Ad-Daraqutni; Ghara’ib Malik. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi: Asma man rawa ‘an Malik. Abu Da’ud: Kitab al-Fara’id, Vol 3, p 164. Ibn Majah: in the introduction to his sunan, chapter eight.

[2] Al-Munawi: Fayd al-Qadir bi Sharh al-Jami’ al-Saghir, Vol 4, pp. 387-388

[3] Al-Mawardi: Adab ad-Dunya wa ad-Din, p. 82 as quoted in Sharh al-Ihya, Vol 1 p. 394 of Az-Zabidi rahmatullah ‘alayh

[4] Al-Ghazzali: al-Ihya, Vol 1, p. 69

[5] Ibn ‘Abdil Barr, Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm, Vol 2, p. 55

[6] Abu Khaythamah an-Nasa’i: Kitab al-‘Ilm, p. 120